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Tungsten alloy is an alloy composed of tungsten and other elements. Among metals, Tungsten and Alloys have the highest melting point, good high-temperature strength and creep resistance, as well as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and electron emission performance. In addition to being widely used in electronics, aerospace, weapons and other fields, Pure Tungsten is also used to manufacture tungsten alloy. In this article, we will take a look at the 3 most common types of tungsten alloys.
Molybdenum-tungsten alloys are molybdenum-based alloys containing 25% and 30% tungsten and have excellent properties to prevent corrosion of molten zinc.
Tungsten Heavy Alloy can be used at higher temperatures than molybdenum or molybdenum alloys. For example, when the molybdenum-tungsten alloy is used as the electrode, spout and thimble component in the furnace for producing high melting point refractory ceramic fiber, its service life is much longer than that of pure metal molybdenum products.
Molybdenum-tungsten alloy has higher corrosion resistance to zinc liquid than pure metal molybdenum, and it is mostly used for zinc liquid temperature measuring tube, zinc liquid pump rotor and some corrosion-resistant parts of the zinc smelting furnace.
Tungsten Alloy is a niobium alloy formed by adding a certain amount of tungsten and other elements based on niobium. Tungsten and niobium form an infinite solid solution.
Niobium-tungsten alloy has good high-temperature strength and good room temperature plasticity and can be made into various processed materials and parts by conventional forming processing technology. It is mainly used for space shuttle skin, nuclear reactor engineering, jet engine parts, and heat radiation screens and ducts for space power generation systems.
Tungsten Carbide is the most common and most important form of tungsten alloy. Unlike the previous tungsten alloys, its main components are tungsten, carbon, and cobalt, so it is also often called tungsten-cobalt alloy.
Tungsten carbide has high hardness, strength, wear-resistance and corrosion resistance, and is known as “industrial teeth”. It is used to manufacture cutting tools, knives, cobalt tools, and wear-resistant parts.
Pure Molybdenum is a silvery, shiny metal that belongs to Group 6A, the second transition series of the Periodic Table. It has the 6th highest melting point and is the 54th most abundant element in the world. The highest molybdenum reserves of molybdenum ore can be found in the U.S, Canada, China, Peru and Chile.
Because of its properties, it serves as a good thermal conductor and as an important alloying element in the production of structural and stainless steel. It has a high ability to resist corrosion and to hold shape even when subjected to high temperatures.
The most common among the Molybdenum and Alloys is the titanium-zirconium-molybdenum alloy (TZM), which is a blend of 0.5% titanium and 0.08% of zirconium, and about 90% molybdenum. This alloy exhibits strength even at very high temperatures, making it the perfect alloy for casting zinc.
Among the refractory metals, molybdenum is the most commonly used. Its most popular application is as a strengthening alloy in the production of steel. Molybdenum alloys are usually found in the form of coils, sheets, rods or bars. These materials are commonly used to manufacture steel, cast iron, and other engineered products used in the automotive, stainless steel production, shipbuilding, aircraft and aerospace and other specialty industries.
Molybdenum Alloys have very high strength and stay stable even at a temperature as high as 1900°C. Such uniqueness contributes to the use of molybdenum alloys in furnaces used to melt glass, in the manufacture of X-ray anodes used for diagnostics, and in other high-temperature heating elements.
Moly is also alloyed with other metals such as tungsten (symbol W), copper (symbol Cu) and rhenium (symbol Re). Mo-W alloys are used for stirrers, piping and pump impellers because of their high resistance against molten zinc. Mo-Cu alloys are used for applications requiring high conductivity, such as the production of electronic circuit boards. Mo-Re alloys are noted for their ductility and are used for rocket engine parts.
Titanium is considered the most biocompatible metal – not harmful or toxic to living tissue – due to its resistance to corrosion from bodily fluids. This ability to withstand the harsh bodily environment is a result of the protective oxide film that forms naturally in the presence of oxygen.
Its ability to physically bond with bone also gives titanium an advantage over other materials that require the use of an adhesive to remain attached. Titanium implants last longer, and much larger forces are required to break the bonds that join them to the body compared with their alternatives.
Titanium and Alloys commonly used in load-bearing implants are significantly less stiff – and closer in performance to the human bone – than stainless steel or cobalt-based alloys.
A Sputtering Target is a material that is used to create thin films in a technique known as sputter deposition, or thin film deposition. During this process the sputtering target material, which begins as a solid, is broken up by gaseous ions into tiny particles that form a spray and coat another material, which is known as the substrate. Sputter deposition is commonly involved in the creation of semiconductors and computer chips. As a result, most sputtering target materials are metallic elements or alloys, although there are some ceramic targets available that create hardened thin coatings for various tools.
Depending on the nature of the thin film being created, sputtering targets can very greatly in size and shape. The smallest targets can be less than one inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, while the largest rectangular targets reach well over one yard (0.9 m) in length. Some sputtering equipment will require a larger sputtering target and in these cases, manufacturers will create segmented targets that are connected by special joints.
Nickel has been used in alloys that date back to the dawn of civilization. Chemical analysis of artifacts has shown that weapons, tools, and coins contain nickel in varying amounts.
Nickel in elemental form or alloyed with other metals and materials has made significant contributions to our present-day society and promises to continue to supply materials for an even more demanding future.
Nickel is a versatile element and will alloy with most metals. Complete solid solubility exists between nickel and copper. Wide solubility ranges between iron, chromium, and nickel make possible many alloy combinations.
Applications and Characteristics of Nickel Alloys
Nickel and Alloys are used for a wide variety of applications, the majority of which involve corrosion resistance and/or heat resistance. Some of these include:
Aircraft gas turbines
Steam turbine power plants
Nuclear power systems
Chemical and petrochemical industries